Surge Protective Devices (SPD) are used to protect the electrical installation, which consists of the consumer unit, wiring and accessories, from electrical power surges known as transient overvoltages.
They are also used to protect sensitive electronic equipment connected to the installation, such as computers, televisions, washing machines and safety circuits, such as fire detection systems and emergency lighting. Equipment with sensitive electronic circuitry can be vulnerable to damage by transient overvoltages.
The effects of a surge can result in either instant failure or damage to the equipment only evident over a longer period of time. SPDs are usually installed within the consumer unit to protect the electrical installation but different types of SPD are available to protect the installation from other incoming services, such as telephone lines and cable TV. It is important to remember that protecting the electrical installation alone and not the other services could leave another route for transient voltages to enter the installation.
There are three different types of Surge Protective Devices:
- Type 1 SPD installed at the origin, e.g. main distribution board.
- Type 2 SPD installed at sub-distribution boards
- Type 3 SPD installed close to the protected load
What are transient overvoltages?
Transient overvoltages are defined as short duration surges of electricity which occur due to the sudden release of energy previously-stored or induced by other means. Transient overvoltages can be either naturally occurring or man-made.
How do transient overvoltages occur?
Man-made transients appear due to switching of motors and transformers, along with some types of lighting. Historically this has not been an issue within domestic installations but more recently, installations are changing with the advent of new technologies such as electric vehicle charging, air/ground source heat pumps and speed-controlled washing machines have made transients much more likely to occur within domestic installations.
Natural transient overvoltages occur due to indirect lightning strikes most likely to happen due to a direct lightning strike on an adjacent overhead power or telephone line causing the transient overvoltage to travel along the lines, which can cause significant damage to the electrical installation and associated equipment.
To find out more about SPDs and how they could benefit your electrical installation, contact us today!